By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of old Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible by way of Proverbs, task, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha by way of Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, is usually well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the lifeless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content essentially due to its particular and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra generally to be had, this quantity bargains a severe variation, translation, and statement at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major subject matters, and position in moment Temple Judaism. eventually, so that it will contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s dating to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions is usually explored.
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Extra resources for 4QInstruction
4Q417 2 i 17–18 assumes that the addressee may experience lack but has the means to solve the problem. Ll. 19–20 are designed for someone who no longer has the means to support himself. The variable financial status of the envisioned addressee is consistent with 4QInstruction’s teachings on borrowing and surety. These are frequent topics of the work. This implies that the members of the intended audience were often in need of credit. One should be respectful and honest towards one’s lenders and pay off the debt promptly (4Q417 2 i 20–24).
In 4Q416 2 iv 5 the word “bosom” helps describe the woman as of ‘his’ bosom, referring to the mebin, conveying the view that the woman’s body belongs to the man. After the phrase “his bosom” 4Q415 2 ii 3 reads ]בר. The editors of DJD 34 suggest that one could reconstruct ברית, “covenant,” a prominent word in the column referring to the covenant of marriage (ll. ”12 He understands the line as alluding to the Adamic motif that the woman was created from the rib of the man (Gen 2:21–22). Marriage 11.
5–8); the Mesopotamian composition reads “Do not be a security. … Then you [will be] a security” (12–13 [obverse]). See Goff 2007, 134. ”85 Ben Sira espouses the same attitude: “My son, do not cheat the poor of their living” (4:1; cf. v. 8; 7:32; 31:4; 34:25). In contrast to both of these texts, 4QInstruction shows surprisingly little interest in the poor as an economic class. 86 There is, however, intense concern for the addressee as a poor person. The traditional sapiential instruction on borrowing and surety is applied to the addressee.