A Companion to Philosophical Logic by Dale Jacquette

By Dale Jacquette

This number of newly comissioned essays by means of overseas participants bargains a consultant evaluation of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

  • Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic logic.
  • Surveys significant tendencies and provides unique insights.

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3, Aristotle ascribes the view that the modalities all collapse into one another to “the Megarians” and is at some pains to argue against it. Though he does not tell us who these Megarians were, we can supply a little history from other sources. Euclid of Megara (c. 430–c. 360 BCE), an approximate contemporary of Plato, was a member of Socrates’ circle. ” We are told that he attacked arguments “not from their premises but from their conclusions;” what this means is not clear, but one possible interpretation is that Euclid followed Zeno in attacking rival positions by showing that they led to unacceptable consequences.

These are dealt with in the four mathematical arts – Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy, and Harmony (Music) – that comprise the quadrivium. The specific logical art is concerned with reasoning. The logical tradition is as old as Aristotle and history knows periods of intense logical activity. Thus the subject is known under many names and, at different times, knows varying boundaries. Aristotle did not use the Greek logikè for the logical art, but preferred ta analytika (from the verb analuo: to resolve (into premises or principles), from which the names of his ‘sweet Analytics,’ that is Analytica priora and posteriora derive.

In (late) medieval logic, however, a novel genre was added to the standard logical repertoire and tracts devoted solely to the treatment of Insolubilia begin to appear. Not all of medieval logic is confined to logic texts, though. The role that philosophy served in medieval academic life was primarily that of an ancilla theologicae (‘a servant of theology’). Therefore, one can often find passages that are highly relevant from a logico-semantical point of view also outside tracts that are devoted specifically to matters logical.

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