A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last

By John M. Last

Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are continuously altering. frequent through the global, this e-book will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and lots of from similar fields equivalent to biostatistics, infectious ailment keep an eye on, future health merchandising, genetics, medical epidemiology, healthiness economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. backed via the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of various international locations. all of the definitions have been reviewed again and again through a world community of members from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth variation comprises good over one hundred fifty new entries and mammoth revisions of concerning the comparable variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a few of the new phrases relate to tools utilized in environmental and medical epidemiology.

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2. 3. 4. variable X mav cause Y Xis Xis necessary sufficient + + + + — — 1. Xis necessary and sufficient to cause Y. Both Xand Fare always present together, and nothing but Xis needed to cause Y; X—»F. For example, the measles virus is necessary to cause measles in an unimmunized individual or population. 2. Xis necessary but not sufficient to cause Y. Xmust be present when Fis present, but Y is not always present when Xis. Some additional factor(s) must also be present; Xand Z—»F. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the necessary cause of tuberculosis but often is not a sufficient cause without poverty, poor nutrition, overcrowding, etc.

See also BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION. 1 This was descended from a nosology proposed in 1853 by Marc d'Espigne and William Farr; Bertillon's classification was adopted at the International Statistical Institute (conference) in Chicago in 1893 and was the progenitor of the INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD). history and development of the ICD. ICD-10, Vol. 2, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 1993. BETA ERROR See ERROR, TYPE II. BIAS Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation.

BIOMETRY (Literally, measurement of life) The application of statistical methods to the study of numerical data based on observation of biological phenomena. The term was made popular by Karl Pearson (1857-1936), who founded the journal Biometrika. , the French man Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis (17871872)—preceded him. BIOSTATISTICS Application of STATISTICS to biological problems. The term is considered by many biomedical scientists to mean the application of statistics specifically to medical problems, but its real meaning is broader.

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