A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy (Studies in Rhetoric and by Douglas Walton

By Douglas Walton

This paintings takes an analytical examine the philosophical suggestion of fallacy and offers an up to date critique of its usefulness for argumentation experiences.

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Yet with the advent of expert systems, it has become clear that the use of expert opinion in argument, if carried out properly, is not fallacious (per se). It is a weak (presumptive) kind of argumentation, but it can be a legitimate and correct kind of reasoned argumentation in many cases. " Locke invented this phrasesee chapter 6 and Hamblin (1970, 160)to refer to the use of an opinion of a reputation expert to browbeat an adversary in argument by suggesting that this adversary would be thought to have committed a "breach of respect" to question the authority of such a dignified expert.

The resulting new theory of fallacy identifies a fallacy with the means, the type of argument, that was used to violate the rule. The new concept of fallacy is formulated in relation to systematic kinds of wrongly used argumentation techniques in several key contexts of dialogue in which argumentation occurs in everyday conversations. 4. " But the rules for the critical discussion given by van Eemeren and Grootendorst (1984; 1987) are very broad. They express in broad terms guidelines on the means to carry out the goals of the dialogue.

Inductive Fallacies 88 8. Types of Arguments 90 9. Fallacies and Logical Form 94 10. Fallacies as Failures of Use 96 Chapter Four: Types of Dialogue 98 1. The Critical Discussion 99 2. The Negotiation 103 3. The Inquiry 106 4. The Quarrel 109 5. Information-Seeking Dialogue 113 6. Deliberation 116 7. Dialectical Shifts 118 8. Illicit Dialectical Shifts 120 9. Double Deceptions 123 10. Mixed Dialogues 126 Chapter Five: Argumentation Schemes 130 1. Presumptive Reasoning 132 2. Case-Based Reasoning 134 3.

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