By Stefan Halle, Nils Chr. Stenseth (auth.), Prof. Dr. Stefan Halle, Prof. Dr. Nils Christian Stenseth (eds.)
Environmental stipulations swap significantly during 24 h with recognize to abiotic components and intra- and interspecific interactions. those adjustments bring about constrained time home windows of chance for animal actions and, for that reason, the query of while to do what's topic to health maximisation.
This quantity offers a present evaluation of theoretical concerns and empirical findings of job styles in small mammals, a bunch within which the vigorous and ecological constraints are fairly critical and the range of task styles is very excessive. Following a comparative ecological technique, for the 1st time job timing is hence taken care of when it comes to behavioural and evolutionary ecology, delivering the conceptual framework for chronoecology as a brand new subdiscipline inside behavioural ecology. an intensive Appendix supplies an creation to equipment of job modelling and to instruments for statistical development analysis.
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Extra resources for Activity Patterns in Small Mammals: An Ecological Approach
The circadian clock is synchronised or 'entrained' to 24 h by the LD cycle. Locomotor activity occurs during the 12-h dark phase (indicated by box) in this nocturnally-active rodent. (Adapted from Albers et al. 1992) o o 12 24 Activity Patterns and the Biological Clock in Mammals 27 shorter as light intensity increases. In diurnal animals, increasing the intensity of light shortens tau and lengthens IX. The circadian clocks of most mammals obey the basic features of Aschoff's rules except for primates that are diurnally active (Tokura and Aschoff 1978; Aschoff 1979; Sulzman et al.
Questions about the relevance of ecological constraints for activity timing can certainly not be answered in terms of universally valid statements about small mammal behaviour. Priorities for decision making will vary depending on species and life style, and it cannot be excluded that optimal temporal strategies may even differ within species and populations, between males and females or between juveniles and adults for instance. However, in comparing an increasing number of case studies within the group of small mammals, some general principles of temporal organisation will hopefully emerge.
1980; Stephan 1981). The majority of research on the entraining effects of food availability have been conducted in laboratory rats and have found that the scheduling of food can influence the circadian control of a number of circadian rhythms including wheel running and drinking. It is not feasible to conduct similar experiments in Syrian hamsters because they do not survive under conditions where food availability is scheduled only for short intervals (Silverman and Zucker 1976). If freely-feeding Syrian hamsters are given restricted opportunities to hoard food, however, then this time cue is capable of serving as an entraining stimulus (Rusak et aI.