Advances in Psychology and Law: Volume 1 by Monica K. Miller, Brian H. Bornstein

By Monica K. Miller, Brian H. Bornstein

This first quantity of an exhilarating annual sequence offers very important new advancements within the psychology at the back of matters within the legislations and its purposes. mental conception is used to discover why many present criminal rules and methods might be useless or counterproductive, with distinctive emphasis on new findings on how witnesses, jurors, and suspects might be stimulated, occasionally resulting in injustice. professional students make ideas for advancements, suggesting either destiny instructions for examine inquiries on issues and wanted coverage adjustments. issues incorporated during this preliminary supplying have hardly ever been thought of in such an in-depth type or are wanting critical re-thinking:

  • Interrogation of minority suspects: pathways to actual and fake confessions.
  • A finished evaluate of showups.
  • The weapon concentration influence for individual identifications and descriptions.
  • The psychology of felony jury directions.
  • Structured hazard evaluation and felony choice making.
  • Children’s participation in felony complaints: pressure, coping, and consequences.
  • Sex criminal coverage and prevention.
  • The psychology of tort law.

Demonstrating the scope and rigor that may symbolize the sequence, quantity 1 of Advances in Psychology and legislation will curiosity psychology and felony specialists in addition to training psychologists, and may encourage clean considering because the fields proceed to interact.

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2009). , Brunson, 2007) and associated experiences such as being suspected, stopped, confronted, searched, or arrested without justification. Closely related to some ethnic minorities’ beliefs about police and law enforcement are those that are influenced by culture of origin and immigration status, as discussed in the preceding section. Negative expectations of the power, bias, and legitimacy of law enforcement can affect interrogation performance through multiple pathways, including emotional distress and self-regulation failure.

Villalobos and D. Davis Confirmation Biases and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Assessments of Deception These fundamental problems with the actual meaning of cues interrogators are taught to use represent one class of problems that can selectively affect minorities. But additional sources of error and bias are inherent to the significant subjectivity in assessment of the cues one does endeavor to use (see Davis & Leo, 2014). For example, as David Lykken noted with respect to the polygraph: Whatever format examiners use—and whichever instrument they employ for recording the subject’s reaction—they may arrive at their final judgment either through clinical evaluation or through objective numerical scoring of the polygraph (or voice analyzer) records alone.

These effects have the dual consequences of enhancing the likelihood of stress-induced confession and increasing suggestibility/persuasion that confession is best. In the context of this increased suggestibility, those with low power seek to interpret information beyond its literal meaning, with the objective of increasing predictability and personal sense of control (see Guinote, 2010). The tendencies of low power individuals to devote attention to the needs and objectives of high power individuals, and to evaluate the details of their behavior to assess implications for the lower power individuals’ goals, would render them more sensitive to the interrogator’s affective reactions (and to manipulation via expressions of flattery, pleasure, and displeasure) and to the many subtle and implied threats and promises concerning the consequences of confession versus denial.

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