Advances in Space Science and Technology 9 by Frederick I. Ordway (ed.)

By Frederick I. Ordway (ed.)

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Color Color Pink to red A few additional microchemical tests have proven useful. These are staining reactions, but involve specific metabolites (Table XXI). One examines cells and tissues for disorder—shrinkage of protoplasm (withdrawal from rigid wall in plants), shrinkage of nucleus, changes in subcellular structures, and other signs of dimensional disturbance. Further tests are then carried out for differential and abnormal stain affinities among TABLE XXI. INDICES OF CELLULAR DAMAGE: MICROCHEMICAL REAGENTS Reagent Tissue reaction + for Schiff's Periodic acid-schiff Folin-cioucalteau NH 4 molybdate AgN03 Kl 3 Acridines Magenta Magenta Orange-brown Deep brown Gray-violet to black Purple to black Orange to green Aldehydes Sugars Phenols Phenols Reducing agents Starch Nucleic acids 43 ELEMENTS OF SPACE BIOLOGY cells and tissues and then subunits.

Thus, photosynthesis has high intensity red (λ 663 ηιμ) and blue (λ 445 ηιμ) requirements. , in many species. Of course, the extent to which spectral class of the stars would influence evolution of photobiological systems upon one of its planets cannot be conjectured ; however, it seems reasonably certain that there would be effects. Among animals, nonvisual photosensitivity takes many forms. Leeches, flat-worms, and other invertebrates have photosensitive cells in their epidermal layers. Eggs of some fish such as the trout are readily killed by solar blue spectral components.

The photochemical region lies (approximately) between 2000 and 9000 Â ; and includes, therefore, the conventional ultraviolet, 2000-3000 Â, the visible, 3000-8000 Â, and the near infrared, 8000-9000 Λ. These low energy regions ( ~ l - 3 e V ) require specialized absorbing molecules in order to exercise their biological effects. These absorbers are generally aromatic, highly unsaturated substances, metal complexes such as chlorophyll and various other porphyrins, flavonoids, phenols, purines, nucleic acids, etc.

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